Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran

Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran

Malakah Jahan Khanum (Sharik al-Saltanah)

b. 1875 Tehran
d. 1947 Paris

Malakah Jahan Khanum (Sharik al-Saltanah), daughter of Surur al-Dawlah and Kamran Mirza Nayib al-Saltanah, was born in 1875 (or 1876). On the order of Nasir al-Din Shah, Malakah Jahan married Muhammad ʻAli Mirza Iʻtizad al-Saltanah (Muzaffar al-Din Mirza's eldest son) in February 19, 1893. Their wedding was held on January 11, 1894 in Tabriz. They had six children: Ahmad Mirza (born 31 Jan 1897), who later became Ahmad Shah Qajar; Muhammad Hasan Mirza Qajar (born 1900 in Tabriz), who was the last crown prince of the Qajar dynasty; Mahmud Mirza; ʻAbd al-Hamid Mirza; Fatimah Khanum; and Khadijah Khanum. Malakah Jahan Khanum died on November 15, 1947 in Paris and was buried next to her husband, Muhammad ʻAli Shah, in Karbalaʼ.

Malakah Jahan Khanum (Sharik al-Saltanah), the daughter of Surur al-Dawlah and Kamran Mirza Nayib al-Saltanah, was born in 1875 (or 1876). Her maternal grandfather was Sultan Murad Mirza Hisam al-Saltanah. On the order of Nasir al-Din Shah, Malakah Jahan married Muhammad ʻAli Mirza Iʻtizad al-Saltanah (Muzaffar al-Din Mirza's eldest son) on February 19, 1893. Her precondition for this marriage was the divorce of Muhammad ʻAli Mirza from the mother of Husayn ʻAli Mirza Iʻtizad al-Saltanah (Iʻtizad Muzaffari), his wife from a temporary marriage. Muhammad ʻAli Mirza accepted the condition. On the command of Muhammad ʻAli Mirza, Mahdi Khan Asif al-Saltanah (son of Haj Muhammad Baqir Khan Qajar Davallu) went to Tehran with 500 attendants to accompany the bride to Tabriz. The wedding was held on January 11, 1894 in Tabriz. Their marriage produced six children: Ahmad Mirza (born on 31 Jan 1897), who later became Ahmad Shah Qajar; Muhammad Hasan Mirza Qajar (born in 1900 in Tabriz), who was the last crown prince of the Qajar dynasty; Mahmud Mirza; ʻAbd al-Hamid Mirza; Fatimah Khanum; and Khadijah Khanum. Malakah Jahan Khanum opposed the Constitutional Revolution and became a political ally of Husayn Pasha Khan Amir Bahadur, Mushir al-Saltanah, and Shaykh Fazl Allah Nuri. After the conquest of Tehran and overthrow of Muhammad ʻAli Shah on July 7, 1910, Malakah Jahan, along with her husband and children, took refuge in the Russian Embassy. On August 30, 1910, Malakah Jahan, Muhammad ʻAli Shah, three of their children (Mahmud Mirza, ʻAbd al-Hamid Mirza, and Khadijah Khanum), and other companions left Iran for Odessa (in the south of Russia). They lived in a mansion bought by Muhammad ʻAli Shah on French Boulevard. During this period, they visited Berlin, Vienna, and some other cities along the coast of the Mediterranean and spent several months there. After these journeys, Muhammad ʻAli Shah, Malakah Jahan, and their companions lived near Vienna for a while, but again, they returned to Odessa. After two years of living in Odessa, Muhammad ʻAli Shah decided to return to Iran and attempted to take back the throne. With the help of his two brothers, Malik Mansur Mirza Shuʻaʻ al-Saltanah and Abu al-Fath Mirza Salar al-Dawlah, and additional Russian aid, Muhammad ʻAli Shah entered Iran and made his headquarters in Gumish Tappah. However, he was defeated and had to flee Iran. He went to Berlin and rented a mansion there. Malakah Jahan and others also left Odessa for Berlin but returned to Odessa after a while. Odessa was occupied as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution, which led Muhammad ʻAli Shah and Malakah Jahan to flee to Ottoman territory aboard a cargo ship. However, British officers prevented them from disembarking. Muhammad ʻAli Shah wrote a letter to the Iranian Embassy in Istanbul and asked for their help. After several hours they were allowed to leave the ship and were accommodated temporarily in the Iranian school. Later on, Muhammad ʻAli Shah rented a palace (owned by an Ottoman prince) and they resided there. During their residency in the Ottoman territory, Malakah Jahan and her husband traveled to Nice (France). Their stay in Turkey did not last long and they had to leave the country after the revolution in Turkey and the beginning of Mustafa Kamal Ataturk's reign. They went to Europe and resided in San Remo (Italy). After a while, they left Italy for Paris and stayed there. Muhammad ʻAli Shah died in Paris on April 5, 1924. Malakah Jahan Khanum died in Paris on November 15, 1947 and was buried next to her husband, Muhammad ʻAli Shah, in Karbalaʼ. She wrote Burhan al-Iman, a collection of prayers. Close

دايرة المعارف زن ایرانی (جلد دو) به سرپرستی مصطفی اجتهادی، مرکز امور مشارکت زنان ریاست جمهوری، چاپ اول ۱۳۸۲. اعتمادالسلطنه، محمد حسن. روزنامه خاطرات اعتمادالسلطنه. به کوشش ایرج افشار. تهران : امیرکبیر ، ۱۳۵۶. رکوعی، کیوان. دوله ها و سلطنه ها . تهران: کیوان ، ۱۳۸۹. معلم حبیب آبادی، محمدعلی. مکارم الآثار (جلد دوم ). اصفهان: نشر نفائس مخطوطات. ۱۳۶۴. Close

Do you know this person?
Help us complete this profile

Life events and dated items

View as search results