Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran

Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran

Asiyah Khanum

d. 1802 or 1803 Tehran

Asiyah Khanum, known as Umm al-Khaqan and Mahd-i ʻUlya (I) was the daughter of Muhammad Khan ʻIzz al-Din Lu Qajar and the mother of Fath ʻAli Shah Qajar. She married Husayn Quli Khan Jahansuz, Aqa Muhammad Khan's brother. After the murder of her husband, she married Aqa Muhammad Khan. Asiyah Khanum died in 1802 in Tehran and was buried in Najaf as she had requested in her will.

Asiyah Khanum, known as Umm al-Khaqan and Mahd-i ʻUlya (I), was the daughter of Muhammad Khan ʻIzz al-Din Lu Qajar from Yukhari Bash tribe. In 1768 (or 1769) she married Husayn Quli Khan Jahansuz, Aqa Muhammad Khan's brother, who was the governor of Damghan. Asiyah Khanum's first child, Fath ʻAli Khan, was born a year later. When Husayn Quli Khan was murdered on April 14, 1775, Karim Khan Zand ordered Aqa Muhammad Khan to bring Asiyah Khanum and her two children, Fath ʻAli Khan and Husayn Quli Khan, back to the tribe. After the escape of Aqa Muhammad Khan from Shiraz to Mazandaran, Asiyah Khanum joined him with her two sons and then married Aqa Muhammad Khan. In 1783 (or 1784), when Tehran was conquered by Aqa Muhammad Khan, he ordered Asiyah Khanum and her sons to leave Mazandaran and join him in Tehran. In 1786 (or 1787), Asiyah Khanum was assigned by her husband to go to Astarabad along with Mirza Muhammad Zaki Mustawfi al-Mamalik in order to give gifts to the chief members of Qajar tribe and invite them to become the shah's allies. In 1789 (or 1790), Asiyah Khanum's elder son became the crown prince. On October 14, 1792, Asiyah Khanum and some chief members of the court made a pilgrimage to the ʻAtabat to bring the bones of Muhammad Hasan Qajar and Husayn Quli Khan Jahansuz to Najaf and bury them there. After Aqa Muhammad Khan's death in 1797, Asiyah Khanum took responsibility for the throne up to the time that her son, Fath ʻAli Shah, became the king. During this time, all payments and withdrawals from the treasury had to be signed by her. When her son, Fath ʻAli Shah, came to the throne, his brother, Husayn Quli Khan rose against him and Fath ʻAli Shah conducted a military campaign in the vicinity of Kashan in order to suppress his rebellion. When Asiyah Khanum heard the news, she immediately went to the battlefield and mediated between her two sons, then took them to Mirza Abu al-Qasim Qumi in Qum in order to reconcile the two brothers. Fath ʻAli Shah forgave his brother and did not punish him during their mother's lifetime. In 1801 (or 1802), Asiyah Khanum made another pilgrimage to Karbalaʼ, this time to bring a marble tomb stone for Aqa Muhammad Khan's grave. She died in 1802 in Tehran and was buried in Najaf, as she had requested in her will. All her jewelry and personal belongings were inherited by her grandchild, Ziaʼ al-Saltanah. Her charity work included the reconstruction of Hakim Hashim School in Tehran, also known as the School of Shah's Mother. She arranged endowments for students and allocated a regular payment for the teachers and students of this school. Close

هدایت، رضا قلی خان. روضه الصفای ناصری. قم : خیام .۱۳۳۹. ج ۹؛ سپهر، میرزا محمد تقی خان لسان الملک. ناسخ التواریخ. به کوشش: محمدباقر بهبودی. تهران: کتابفروشی اسلامیه، ۱۳۵۳. ج ۱؛ اعتمادالسلطنه، محمد حسن خان. روزنامه تاریخ منتظم ناصری. به کوشش: محمد اسمعیل رضوانی. تهران: دنیای کتاب، ۱۳۷۶. ج ۳؛ ساروی، محمد تقی. تاریخ محمدی، احسن التواریخ. به کوشش: غلامرضا طباطبایی مجد. تهران: امیرکبیر، ۱۳۷۱؛ عضدالدوله، سلطان احمد میرزا. تاریخ عضدی. به کوشش: عبدالحسین نوایی. تهران: نشرعلم، ۱۳۷۶. Close

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