Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran

Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran

Fasl Bahar Khanum (Iran al-Dawlah)

b. 1878 or 1878
d. 1940 or 1941 Qum

Fasl Bahar Khanum (known as Iran al-Dawlah), daughter of Shiʻri Sultan Khanum Shams al-Saltanah and Sultan Husayn Mirza Nayyir al-Dawlah was born in 1878. She was also the sister of Mihr Afruz Khanum Shams al-Saltanah; on her mother's side, she was the granddaughter of Mu‘tamad al-Dawlah Farhad Mirza (grandson of Fath‘ali Shah), and on her father's side, the granddaughter of Parviz Mirza Nayyir al-Dawlah (son of Fath ‘Ali Shah). She married Mustafa Quli Khan Hajib al-Dawlah and their children are Khanum Hajib Nayyir ‘Uzma, Ma‘sumah Khanum Nayyirah A‘zam, Allahyar Khan, Shah Qulikhan Amir Mu‘azzam, ‘Ali Akbar Khan, ‘Ali Asghar Khan, and Amir Hasan Khan.

She completed her education under home tutors and wrote poems under the pen name of Jannat. At the age of thirteen, she married Mustafa Quli Khan Hajib al-Dawlah, who was an influential person in Nasir al-Din Shah's court and a man of culture. They socialized with poets and writers of the time, including Malik al-Shu‘ara Bahar, Shahzadah Muhammad Hashim Khan Afsar, Shams al-Shu‘ara Mulk Ara, Mirzadah ‘Ishghi, and Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Khan Shayda. Soon, Iran al-Dawlah got the attention of her contemporaries and her poems were published in some of the periodicals of the period such as Armaghan and Gul-i Zard. Her book of poetry "Bahar-i Jannat," gathered by one of her sons, Allahyar Davallu, was published in 1978 or 1979. Some of her other poems are also published in two books titled Karnamah-i Zanan-i Mashhur-i Iran (by Fakhri Qadimi) and Bahar-i Qajar (by Niku Yusufi). Some of her own handwritten poems exist in the Giti Ghajar Davallu Collection on our website. In addition, Fasl Bahar Khanum wrote a book on the craft of cooking and homemaking. She was also a student of Kamal al-Mulk and received her certificate from Hunaristan-i Sanayi‘-i Mustazrafah. She has left behind some oil paintings that are being kept by her children. The image of one of her paintings, a portrait of a woman, exists in the Hajib Nayyir ‘Uzma Qajar Davallu Collection on our website. Additionally, Fasl Bahar was a talented singer and played piano and tar and has left behind some records in Bayat-i Turk. She died in 1940 and according to her will was buried in the shrine of Hazrat-i Ma‘sumah in Qum. Close

علیرضا اقتداری، «فصل بهار خانم»، دايرة المعارف زن ایرانی، به سرپرستی مصطفی اجتهادی، جلد دوم، مرکز امور مشارکت زنان ریاست جمهوری، چاپ اول، ۱۳۸۲، ص ۷۳۸؛ موسسه مطالعات تاریخ معاصر ایران http://iichs.org/index.asp?id=930&doc_cat=9 Close

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